Nature Park Travel - Europe off the beaten track
City Trips: Berlin, Germany
Palaces, churches, museums, theaters, government buildings, embassies, ministries, residential houses, cemeteries, monuments, basement cellars and ruins tell Berlin's history.
Berlin started to be important in the 17th century, therefore buildings from the
The witnesses of Berlin's rise to Prussian capital are
As German capital Berlin makes an impression with the Neo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Baroque of
Many modern residential areas and Bauhaus buildings date back to the
Not much can be seen today of the
ambitious National Socialist's designs for a 'Pan-German capital'.
The Second World War destroys great parts of the city. The
moves lively central areas to the outskirts of West and East Berlin. East and West compete in the reconstruction of the city.
The neglected areas and the wasteland along the wall move back to Berlin's center of Berlin after
When the federal government transfers from Bonn to Berlin a large number of
are commissioned to internationally renowned architects.
In 1244 the name Berlin appears in documents for the first time, 1237 is officially considered to be the year of the city's foundation. Berlin is a stop on a trade route, in 1359 the town becomes a member of the Hanse. In the 14th century two fires destroy a large part of the settlement.
In 1417 Burgrave Friedrich VI from the Franconian line of the Suebian Hohenzollern becomes Elector Friedrich I of the electorate of Brandenburg. Up to 1918 the rulers of Brandenburg, Berlin, Prussia and finally Germany will be members of his Hohenzollern family.
Only a few buildings from the Middle Ages have been preserved in Berlin.
Southeast of the Rote Rathaus, the Nikolai church in Berlin Mitte is Berlin's oldest parish church. From the Romanesque church built in 1230 only the western part has been preserved (S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200). During the centuries the church was rebuilt and remodeled several times, and severely damaged in World War II. In 1987 the GDR undertook the reconstruction of the church and the surrounding Nikolai quarter for Berlin's 750th anniversary, celebrated by both parts of the city.
In Klosterstrasse between Nikolai quarter and Alexanderplatz, you see the ruins of the Klosterkirche originally built in the 13th century (Klosterstrasse, U2). In Waisenstrasse a few hundred yards from Klosterkirche, you find the remains of Berlin's medieval town wall built in the 13th and 14th century.
The well preserved Gothic Marien-Kirche opposite to the Rote Rathaus is Berlin's second oldest parish church (S- und U-Bahnhof Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, Bus 100, Bus 200).
The Juliusturm tower of the Spandau citadel was built around 1200. The Spandau Nikolai church is a Late Gothic building from the first half of the 15th century (U-train station Altstadt Spandau, U7). Nearby, the Gotische Haus, built around 1500, is worth visiting.
The village churches of the Berlin districts Marienfelde, Mariendorf, Tempelhof, Britz, Buckow, Lichterfelde, Dahlem, Karow, Blankenburg and Stralau date back up to the 13th century.
Located at an excavation site, the Dueppel museum's village is a reconstructed 13th century medieval settlement with houses and workshops (Clauerstrasse 11, U-train station Krumme Lanke, U1, S-train stations Zehlendorf, Mexikoplatz, S1, bus 115, 629). You can watch demonstrations of medieval crafts.
There are few Renaissance buildings in Berlin: You can visit the Jagdschloss Grunewald hunting lodge (U-train station Dahlem-Dorf, U1, bus to Koenigin Luise Strasse / Clay-Allee, 20 minute walk), the Spandau citadel (U-train station Zitadelle, U7) and the Ribbeck Haus at Werderscher Markt in Berlin's center (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S 75, S9, bus 100, 200).
Destroyed in World War II, the history of Berlin's former town palace goes back to a 15th century castle. There are plans to reconstruct the building with a Baroque front from 2008 onwards. Built on the site of the town palace after the war, the GDR's 'Palast der Republik' was demolished in 2006 (Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, Bus 100, 200).
From 1539 onwards, Berlin and the Brandenburg electors remain Protestant - unchallenged.
Schloss Koepenick is built in the middle of the 16th century. The Swedish king Gustav Adolf resides in Koepenick palace during the Thirty Years' War (S-train station Koepenick, S3, then tram 60, 62).
Berlin's rise to power begins with the end of the Thirty Years' War - from 1640 onwards. The "Great" Elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm, studies in the Netherlands bringing back Dutch architects, painters and sculptors.
The Friedrichswerder and Dorotheenstadt quarters emerge between the town palace and Tiergarten park, Schloss Koepenick is remodeled (S-train station Koepenick, S3, then tram 60, 62), Berlin rises as transshipment center on the new Oder-Spree canal, connecting Hamburg to Wroclaw, Schloss Niederschoenhausen is built (Ossietzkystrasse, Pankow, S4, S8, S85).
Nut and linden trees are planted along the riding trail from the town palace to Tiergarten: In the following centuries the trail grows into "Unter den Linden" avenue (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, bus 100, bus 200).
The "Great Elector" chooses Potsdam as his secondary residence. From 1660 onwards the Potsdam town palace is built - in Dutch style. Both, the Berlin and the Potsdam town palace were destroyed in World War II, the remains demolished by the GDR government. From the "Great" Elector's town palace in Potsdam, you can still see the Marstall stables housing Potsdam's film museum (Potsdam station, S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten).
The "Great Elector" recruits skilful immigrants: In 1671 the Jewish community is established, in 1685 French Protestant Hugenot refugees arrive in Berlin.
The Hugenot Museum at Gendarmenmarkt square commemorates the history of French Protestants in Berlin (U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6).
The Jewish Museum documents Jewish-German history (Lindenstrasse 9-14, Kreuzberg, U-train station Hallesches Tor, U1, U6).
The Baroque palace Friedrichsfelde dates back to 1695 - built in Dutch country house style. Today, in Friedrichsfelde palace you visit exhibitions of 17th and 18th century art, the halls are used for concerts. The palace park has been changed into a zoological landscape garden.
In 1701, the son of the "Great" Elector of Brandenburg crowns himself as Friedrich I "King of Prussia": Berlin is the Prussian capital.
The Akademie der Künste - art academy - emerges (today there is a branch at Pariser Platz 4 on the site of the Arnimsche Palais destroyed in World War II, the academy resides here from 1907 onwards, S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200,). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz founds the Akademie der Wissenschaften - science academy - (since 1950 the seat is in the Prussian State Bank building, Jaegerstrasse 22-23, Gendarmenmarkt, U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train-station Stadtmitte, U2, U6).
The Friedrichsstadt quarter around Gendarmenmarkt square and Friedrichstrasse, the Zeughaus arsenal (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S 75, S9, bus 100, 200), the Charite (Schumannstrasse 20-21, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse S1, S2, S25, S26, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6, the oldest preserved buildings date back to 1900) and Schloss Charlottenburg palace (U-train station Richard-Wagner-Platz, U7, U-train station Sophie-Charlotte-Platz, U2) are built, the town palace is remodeled (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S 75, S9, bus 100, 200, plans are to reconstruct the town palace on the site of the GDR's Palast der Republik demolished in 2006).
Italian Baroque replaces Dutch style. Protestant churches are built: the Parochialkirche (Nikolai quarter, S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, 200), the churches of the Franzoesische and Deutsche Dom - the French and German cathedral - at Gendarmenmarkt square (U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6), the Sophienkirche church in the Spandauer Vorstadt district (U-train station Weinmeisterstrasse, U8).
In 1713, Friedrich I is followed to the throne by his son Friedrich Wilhelm I. Friedrich Wilhelm I transforms Prussia into a soldiers' state. Draconian Punishments for disobedience or lack of discipline threaten his subjects, his son and his son's friends.
Friedrich Wilhelm I. inherits 30 000 soldiers from his father, he more than doubles the size of the Prussian army up to his death in 1740. He spends money for the army, for drill grounds, for administrative buildings, for residential houses, for schools. He is economical: He does not waste soldiers, during his regency Prussia keeps out of wars.
Pariser Platz square is built (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200), Leipziger Platz Square (U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6) and Mehring Platz square (Kreuzberg district, U-train station Hallesches Tor, U1, U6), the Lustgarten - garden of pleasure - in front of the town palace is changed into a parade ground, the town palace is finished (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S 75, S9, bus 100, 200, plans are to reconstruct the town palace on the site of the Palast der Republik demolished in 2006).
Potsdam changes into a garrison and administrative center. At the Babelsberg Griebnitzsee lake Friedrich Wilhelm I commissions the - modest - Jagdschloss Stern hunting lodge: a brick building in Dutch style (Griebnitzsee station, S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten). The Jagdschloss Stern hunting lodge is part of the UNESCO's World Heritage.
The Alte Kammergericht dates back to the time of Friedrich Wilhelm I - today the building is integrated into the Jewish Museum (Lindenstrasse 9-14, Kreuzberg, U-train station Hallesches Tor, U1, U6, bus 129, 240, 341).
Friedrich Wilhelm I continues the recruitment of the "Great Elector": Protestant refugees from Salzburg and well qualified artisans from the Netherlands arrive - in Potsdam the Dutch quarter is built (Potsdam station, S-train S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten). In Berlin Jewish non-house owners are allocated lodgings in the Scheunenviertel quarter.
On one side of his character Friedrich II is the opposite in opposition to his father, the soldiers' king. Friedrich II plays the flute, loves art, literature and his friends. As a youth he tries to escape, flees to England with his friend Katte and gets caught, he is confined to a fortress, his friend Katte is executed. Friedrich II does not consummate the marriage his father forces on him.
When Friedrich II succeeds to the throne Berlin rises to "German capital of the Enlightenment", Friedrich II invites the philosopher Voltaire and the writer Lessing to his court, the publisher Friedrich Nicolai and the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn shape Berlin's cultural life. French painters and sculptors arrive in Berlin. Friedrich II commissions Schloss Rheinsberg, a new wing to Schloss Charlottenburg and Schloss Sanssouci in Potsdam in French Rococo style (Potsdam station, S-train S1, then bus 695 or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten). Schloss Sanssouci is part of the UNESCO's World Heritage.
On the other hand Friedrich II builds up the Prussian army and he is less economical using the life of his soldiers than his father: Prussia makes a habit of being at war. In the 18th century, for a short period, during the regency of Friedrich II "the Great" , Prussia acts as one of the European great powers. Friedrich II takes great risks to achieve this: During the Seven Years' War the Austrian and Russian army occupy Berlin for four days.
The enlightened king Friedrich II is an absolutist monarch. Loving satire and mockery, Voltaire has to flee via Gotha to Frankfurt, where local police arrest him on Friedrich's request. Voltaire is forced to return letters and documents, containing poems written by Friedrich II.
Classicism and Romanticism
At Unter den Linden avenue, Friedrich II plans the Forum Fridericianum as a cultural center: Designed by Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff the Opera House, the St. Hedwigs Cathedral, the Alte Bibliothek - old library and the Palais of today's Humboldt university are built in Classicist style (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200).
Berlin's famous landmark, the Brandenburg gate, is a replica - the first Brandenburger Tor is built in Potsdam to commemorate the Seven Years' War. From Potsdam's Brandenburg gate at Luisenplatz square, an alley leads to Schloss Sanssouci palace (Potsdam station, S-train S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten).
After Friedrich II dies in 1786, Berlin remains an economic and cultural center, Prussia however no longer plays an important role in Europe for quite a while.
Friedrich II's nephew and successor Friedrich Wilhelm II hates his oncle and he loves women: The small Romanticist palace on Pfaueninsel island (Wannsee station, S1, S7, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten) and the Palais Lichtenau in Potsdam (Potsdam station, S-train S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, then Bus 692) owe their existence to his mistress Wilhemine Encke, Duchess Lichtenau, ennobled by Friedrich Wilhelm II. Today, the Pfaueninsel island is part of the UNESCO's Cultural Heritage, same as the Neue Garten with the Marmorpalais, next to Palais Lichtenau built for the king from 1786 onwards (Potsdam station, S-train S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, then bus 692).
It is fun-loving Friedrich Wilhelm II who commissions Berlin's famous Brandenburg Gate: The Brandenburger Tor is built from 1788 to 1791 modeled on the Acropolis. A goddess of peace steers a carriage drawn by four horses (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200).
For two years, from 1806 to 1808, Napoleon's army occupies Berlin. Napoleon sends the peace goddess and the carriage of the Brandenburg Gate to Berlin. After Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig, the goddess, the carriage and the horses return to Berlin, the peace goddess turns into a goddess of victory: She now holds a wand with a Prussian eagle and an iron cross.
In 1810 the Humboldt University opens in the Palais of the Forum Fridericianum (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200, 348). Students visit the lectures of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland and - from 1818 to 1831 - Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel.
The literary famous Heinrich Heine, Heinrich von Kleist, Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim, Adelbert von Chamisso, Bettina and Achim von Arnim, the Grimm brothers, Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, E.T.A. Hoffmann spend time in Berlin. Rahel Varnhagen von Ense and Henriette Hertz host literary saloons - Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt are guests. In 1811 there is a scandal: Heinrich von Kleist and Henriette Vogel commit suicide at the Kleine Wannsee lake.
The architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel puts his stamp on the center of town: In 1817 he builds the Neue Wache (S-train stations Unter den Linden, Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200), in 1818 the Schauspielhaus (Konzerthaus Berlin, Gendarmenmarkt, U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6), from 1824 to 1830 the Alte Museum at Museums-Insel island and the Schlossbruecke bridge (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200), in 1825 the Friedrichwerdersche Kirche (S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200). In the Friedrichwerdersche Kirche the Schinkel Museum exhibits Classicist sculptures. Museums-Insel island is part of the UNESCO's World Cultural Heritage.
The Classicist landscape gardener Peter Joseph Lenné turns Berlin parks into English gardens.
Potsdam's Schloss Glienicke palace and park are designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Peter Joseph Lenné. Glienicke is part of the UNESCO's World Heritage (Wannsee station, S-train S1, S7 or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, then bus 116).
Historism and Art Nouveau
In the 19th century Berlin turns into an industrialized modern metropolis, political mouvements challenge the monarchy.
In 1842 the Frankfurter Bahnhof station opens the doors, in 1867 the Ostbahnhof station (today both stations belong to Ostbahnhof), in 1847 the Hamburger Bahnhof station, in 1879 the Lehrter Bahnhof station, in 1882 the Bahnhof Zoologischer Garten station, the Bahnhof Friedrichstrasse and Alexanderplatz station.
Today, next to Lehrter Bahnhof station in Hamburger Bahnhof you find the Museum fuer Gegenwart exhibiting the works of Joseph Beuys, Andy Warhol, Cy Twombly, Robert Rauschenberg, Anselm Kiefer, Richard Serra and the "Young Wilds" (Lehrter Bahnhof station, S-train S3, S5, S7, S75, S9).
In 1844 Germany's first zoological garden opens in Berlin's center (S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U9, bus 100, 200).
In 1848 during the March Revolution people get killed fighting on Berlin's barricades. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV soon breaks his promise of voting rights, freedom of press, freedom of assembly and coalition.
In March 1848, the dead democrat barricade fighters are laid out on the steps of the Deutsche Dom cathedral at Gendarmenmarkt square. Today in the Deutsche Dom you find an exhibition on the emergence of parliamentary democracy in Germany (U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6).
In 1854, the Berlin printshop owner Ernst Litfass invents the 'Litfass' advertising pillars for public notices and posters.
The growth of industries equals the growth of the Social Democratic Party: From the middle of the 19th century onwards Berlin is a center of the workers' movement.
Up to today, in Kreuzberg and Prenzlauer Berg, you see Berlin's typical 19th century mix of tenement blocks, workshops, residential and business houses connected by interior courtyards (Kreuzberg: Oranienstrasse at U-train station Moritzplatz, U8, Prenzlauer Berg: Kastanienallee at U-train station Eberswalder Strasse, U2).
In the Berlin's center you find this mix in the Heckmann Hoefe between Oranienburger Strasse 32 and Auguststrasse 9 - the oldest house dates back to 1845. Today in the courtyards, there are shops, a cafe, a bar and restaurant, a theater and a candy manufacture (S-train station Oranienburger Strasse, S1, S2, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6).
In 1866 Berlin becomes the capital of the North German Federation, from 1871 onwards Berlin is capital of the German Empire, the Prussian king Wilhelm I acquires the title German Emperor and Berlin is described as "Wilhelminian", the chancellor Bismarck, who has led Prussia successfully through the wars, attends to political issues. The establishment of the German empire, the victorious peace and French reparation payments set off an economic boom. Up to today, you find Neo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Baroque "Gruenderzeit" buildings all over Berlin.
You see late 19th century interiors in the Gruenderzeit Museum in the Mahlsdorf mansion: living rooms, music machine rooms, servants' rooms, kitchens and washkitchens (Mahlsdorf S-train station, S5, Tram 62, bus 198).
In 1866 in Oranienburger Strasse the Neue Synagoge opens the doors (S-train station Oranienburger Strasse, S1, S2, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6).
The building of the Neue Synagoge was damaged by National Socialists and by the the War, today, in the reconstructed synagogue, you see an Exhibition on the history of the synagogue and Berlin's Jewish community.
Reconstructed in 1987, the family residence of the synagogue's architect Eduard Knoblauch is located in Nikolai quarter. In the original 19th century interior, you visit an exhibition on the history of the Knoblauch family in the 19th century (S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, 200).
Built from 1861 to 1869, the Neo-Renaissance Rote Rathaus - red council house - is named for its red brick front. Designed by the uncle of Walter Gropius, from 1877 to 1881 the Martin-Gropius-Bau is built, housing the museum of arts and crafts (S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200) and from 1884 to 1894 the Reichstag parliament building is put up (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200).
The aristocratic palaces in Berlin Mitte - center - are turned into government buildings after 1871 and construction works continue: Berlin Mitte is the government district and the most exclusive part of town.
In the 19th century the most important ministries, offices and embassies are located in Wilhelmstrasse and in the side streets between Pariser Platz square and Unter den Linden avenue (Wilhelmstrasse, bus 200, Unter den Linden avenue, S-train S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200).
Impressed by the Champs-Elysees in Paris, Prince Bismarck orders a boulevard for Berlin. In 1875 the Kurfuerstendamm is expanded to a representative avenue (S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S75, S9, U2, U9, Bus 100, 200, U-train station Kurfuerstendamm, U9, Uhlandstrasse, U1).
In 1888 the liberal Friedrich III manages a regency of 99 days before he dies, his son Wilhelm II takes over in the same year. Wilhelm II's mother is the eldest daughter of the British Queen Victoria.
From 1891 to 1895 in honor of Emperor Wilhelm II's grandfather Wilhelm I the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial church is build at Kurfuerstendamm (S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S75, S9, U2, U9, bus 100, 200).
From 1873 onwards, in the remodeled market hall of the Friedrichstadtpalast artists give performances - the Zirkus Salomonsky, the Zirkus Renz, the Zirkus Schumann. Today, nearby, you find the "Neue Friedrichstadtpalast" built in 1983 (Friedrichstrasse 107, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6).
In 1892 the Neo Baroque Theater am Schiffbauerdamm opens at the bank of the Spree river opposite to Bahnhof Friedrichstrasse station (S- and U-train station, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6). From 1903 to 1906 Max Reinhardt is the director. First performances of Gerhard Hauptmann's and Frank Wedekind's plays are staged here.
From 1895 to 1896 near Kurfuestendamm the Theater des Westens is built - in a mix of styles including Art Nouveau (Kantstrasse 12, S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U9, Uhlandstrasse, U1, Kurfuerstendamm, U9).
40 cases arrive in 1881: Heinrich Schliemann has smuggled the Trojan Treasure out of Turkey.
At first, the treasure is exhibited in the Museum for Arts and Crafts, from 1922 onwards the treasure is shown in the Museum for Pre- and Early History in Schloss Charlottenburg (U-train station Richard-Wagner-Platz, U7, U-train station Sophie-Charlotte-Platz, U2). Today you find the Trojan Treasure in Moscows Puschkin Museum. The Museum in Schloss Charlottenburg shows replicas.
In 1902 the Pergamon Altar is transported from Turkey to Berlin. In 1909 construction works begin for the Pergamon Museum on Museums-Insel island (S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6, S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, tram 1, 50, Lustgarten stop, bus 200). Today the Pergamon Museum and Museums-Insel island are part of the UNESCO World Heritage.
In 1912 the limestone bust of the Egyptian Queen Nofertiti arrives in Berlin.
Towards the end of the 19th century tenement blocks rise next to the barns, stables and store rooms of the Scheunenviertel quarter (U-train stations Weinmeisterstrasse or Rosenthaler Platz, U8, U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2). Berlin transport workers and East European Jewish immigrants find cheap accommodation in the area.
In 1906 and 1907 a large part of the Scheunenviertel quarter is demolished, replaced by today's Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz square (then Buelow-Platz) and by the Hackesche Hoefe courtyards - boasting an impressive entrance in Art Noveau style (S-train station Oranienburger Strasse, S1, S2, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6, S-train station Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S 7, S75, S9). In 1914, the Volksbuehne theater opens the doors at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, Max Reinhardt is the director from 1915 to 1918 (U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2).
In Mulackstrasse in Scheunenviertel you still see some of the residential houses built from 1800 to 1900, classified as historical monuments.
In the Spandauer Vorstadt district around Oranienburger Strasse exclusive residential and business houses are built.
Today you find the art center Tacheles in the remains of the Friedrichstrassen-Passagen shopping center built from 1907 to 1909 in Oranienburger Strasse.
In 1905 Max Reinhardt takes over the direction of the Deutsche Theater founded in 1883 as an actors' company (Schumannstrasse 13a, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6). The Deutsche Theater performs in the building of the Friedrich-Wilhelmstaedtische Theater opened in 1850. Max Reinhardt is director up to 1933.
In 1907 the Kaufhaus des Westens opens the doors near Kurfuerstendamm avenue (U-train station Wittenbergplatz, U1, U2, U3). Erich Schaudt is the architect. You can still go shopping in the Kadewe, the extensive food department is famous.
From 1912 onwards Berlin turns into film city. At the former UFA - Universum Film AG - site in the Babelsberg film park - from spring to autumn - you have a look behind the scenery and enter the Cabinet of Dr Caligari, you visit the villas of the UFA stars at Griebnitzsee and in the Potsdam film museum you watch 80 years of Babelsberg films (Babelsberg, Griebnitzsee or Potsdam station, S-train S1 or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, bus 692).
The Berlin Film Museum at Potsdamer Platz square shows German film history from the 19th century up to today, the museum owns the estate of Marlene Dietrich (S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200).
Wilhelm II pursues an imperial, colonial foreign policy, his interior policy militarises German society: Wilhelm II leads Germany into the First World War.
During the regency of Wilhelm II the shoe-maker Wilhelm Voigt rents a captain's uniform and starts ordering civilians around, he succeeds in arresting Koepenick's mayor and confiscating the town's treasury. In the Rathaus - council house - of Koepenick you visit an exhibition on "The Captain of Koepenick" (S-train station Koepenick, S3, then tram 60, 62).
Documents and photographs from both World Wars can be seen in the Anti War Museum founded by a pacifist in 1925 (Berlin Mitte, Bruesseler Strasse 21, U-train station Amrumer Strasse, U9)
In 1918 Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the republic from a window of Berlin's Reichstag, followed by Karl Liebknecht from the town palace a few hours later.
There are street fights, Wilhelm II emigrates to the Netherlands. Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered by volunteer 'Freikorps' soldiers, the republic agrees on a constitution in Weimar, a general strike prevents the Kapp-Putsch coup. Next to London, Berlin is the second-largest European city. The Berlin myth of the 1920's begins.
Built from 1913 to 1917 for the crown prince in the style of an English mansion, Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam is the last Hohenzollern palace. The crown prince emigrates to the Netherlands in 1918, he returns to Schloss Cecilienhof in 1923 and lives there up to 1945. Schloss Cecilienhof is part of the UNESCO's World Heritage (Neuer Garten, Potsdam station, S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, then bus 692).
The Bauhaus shapes Berlin's new buildings. Walter Gropius builds the Siemensstadt district with Hans Scharoun (U-train station Rohrdamm, U-train station Siemensdamm, U7), Hans Poelzig is the architect of the Haus des Rundfunks - broadcasting company house - (Masurenallee 8-14, U-train station Kaiserdamm, U-train station Theodor-Heuss-Platz, U2, S-train station Messe Nord/ICC/Witzleben, S45, 46) and of the Filmtheater Babylon (U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2).
Mies van der Rohe runs an architectural firm in Berlin. From the architecture he designed in Berlin, mansions and apartment buildings have been preserved: Finished in 1933, the Villa Haus Lemke in Berlin-Hohenschoenhausen (Oberseestr. 60, Tram M5 from S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200) shows changing exhibitions on architecture and art, in the Afrikanische Strasse in Berlin Wedding three tenement blocks by Mies van der Rohes are classified as historical monuments (Nr. 15/23, Nr. 29/33, Nr. 37/41, U-train station Afrikanische Strasse, U6). The Nationalist Socialists destroy the Mies van der Rohe's gravestones for Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg on the cemetery of Berlin-Friedrichsfelde.
You see a documentation of Bauhaus history and samples of Bauhaus design in the Bauhaus Archive. Designed by Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus Archive is built from 1976 to 1979 (Klingelhoeferstrasse 14, U-train station Nollendorfplatz, U1,U2,U3,U4).
In the 1920's, the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm shows first performances of Carl Zuckmayer's plays, stages Bertold Brecht's and Kurt Weill's Three Penny Opera, Marieluise Fleissers Pioneers in Ingolstadt (Spree bank across S- and U-train station S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6).
In 1919, Max Reinhardt commissions Hans Poelzig to remodel the Friedrichstadtpalast market hall and circus building into the Grosse Schauspielhaus. From the middle of the 1920's Erik Charell stages chorus line shows. Fritzi Massary, Max Pallenberg, Gitta Alpar, Comedian Harmonists, Claire Waldoff and Josephine Baker appear on stage - and young unknown Marlene Dietrich. In the 1980's Hans Poelzig's building is demolished - in 1983 the "Neue Friedrichstadtpalast" opens across the road (Friedrichstrasse 107, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6).
The Scheunenviertel quarter at Spandauer Vorstadt is shaped by a mix of East-European Jewish immigration, poverty, politics, culture and art (U-train station Weinmeisterstrasse or Rosenthaler Platz, U8, U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2). At the Buelow square named after Rosa Luxemburg today, in the 1920's the Volksbuehne stages Erwin Piscator's plays, nearby the Filmtheater Babylon shows silent movies. In 1926 the Communist Party buys the Karl-Liebknecht-Haus - an office block built for the factory owner Werth in 1910 (U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2).
Designed by Peter Behrens in 'New Objectivity' style, built from 1928 to 1931, the Alexanderhaus and Berolinahaus are the oldest preserved buildings at Alexanderplatz square (Alexanderplatz 1-2, S- and U-train station, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200).
At Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz in the Volksbuehne theater you still see plays and in the Filmtheater Babylon across the road you still enjoy movies (U-train station Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, U2). In Karl-Liebknecht-Haus, the former KPD communist party headquarters, post-communist PDS resides.
In the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm Helene Weigel and the Berlin Ensemble have perserved Bertold Brecht's heritage through GDR-times. Today the Berlin Ensemble features all kinds of established playwrights including Bertold Brecht (S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6).
In the Mahlsdorf Gruenderzeit Museum you find the interior of the Mulackritze Scheunenviertel pub (S-train station Mahlsdorf, S5, tram 62, bus 198). In the 1920's the graphic artist Heinrich Zille drew his cartoons here, comedian Claire Waldoff frequented the Mulackritze, the theater director Gustav Gruendgens, the actresses Marlene Dietrich and Henny Porten. Go to the Heinrich Zille Museum in Nikolai quarter to see drawings of the Berlin of this era (Probststrasse 11, S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, 200).
Adolf Hitler is elected chancellor on January 30th, 1933. The fire in the Reichstags building one month later is the final pretext to eliminate any opposition. National Socialists organise the boycott of Jewish businesses, destroy synagogues, stage the public burning of books they dislike, drive out, persecute and murder Jewish citizens, political opponents, Roma and Sinti, homosexuals.
The burning of books on May 10, 1933 is commemorated by a glass paned basement room exhibiting empty bookshelves between Staatsoper, Alte Bibliothek, St Hedwigs cathedral and Humboldt university (Bebelplatz, S-train stations Unter den Linden, Hackescher Markt, S3, S5, S7 S75, S9, bus 100, 200).
The Memorial Koepenick Blood Week June 1933 commemorates Koepenick victims of SA torture (Puchanstrasse 12, Koepenick, S3).
At the site of excavated Gestapo torture cells in front of the Martin-Gropius-Bau building, the "Topographie des Terrors" documentation center informs on National Socialist persecution and the history of the former Gestapo, SS and Ministry of Security headquarters nearby (S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200).
At the South corner of Tiergarten, the Gedenkstaette Deutscher Widerstand in the former "Bendlerblock" documents German resistance from Communist to Christian groups (Stauffenbergstrasse 13-14, U-train station Kurfuerstenstrasse, U1). From 1914 to 1918, the Bendlerblock houses the Naval Office, after World War I, the army's high command resides in the building. In the aftermath of the unsuccessful assasination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944, the generals Beck and Olbricht, Graf von Stauffenberg, Mertz von Quirnheim and von Haeften are shot here.
A memorial in Ploetzensee (U-train station Jakob-Kaiser-Platz, U7, then bus 123) commemorates the circa 1800 people of all nations killed in the jail from 1933 to 1945 for political reasons, including conjurers of July 20, 1944.
In 1936, the Olympic Games interrupt the terror briefly. Today, football games, sport events and concerts take place in the National Socialists' Olympic site (the site has been remodeled for the Football World Cup 2006, S- and U-train station Olympiastadion, S5, S75, U2).
Throughout the Weimar Republic the government quarter has not been changed, the National Socialists build the "Neue Reichskanzlei" in Voss-Strasse and the "Reichsluftfahrtsministerium" - the aviation ministry. Hitler's architect Albert Speer plans to turn Berlin into a "pangerman capital". You can visit the building of the aviation ministry (Bundesfinanzministerium, Wilhelmstrasse 97, S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200). The Reichskanzlei has been completely destroyed from 1949-1953 on orders of the Soviet administration.
In 2008, an exhibition in a pavillon situated next to the 'Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe' at Brandenburg Gate shows models of Albert Speer's designs for 'Germania', that would have completely altered the look of Berlin's city center, had they been realised.
In a villa at lake Wannsee, National Socialist officials coordinate the murder of Jews. Today, an exhibition documents "The Wannsee Conference and the Genocide of European Jews" in the villa (Am Großen Wannsee 56-58, Wannsee station S1, S7).
A large part of Berlin is wrecked by the war. Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945, in the "Fuehrerbunker" of the Neue Reichskanzlei. Soviet Troups hoist the red flag on Brandenburg gate - the goddess, the carriage and the four horses on top of the gate are destroyed.
In the German Russian Museum in the Lichtenberg district Karlshorst you can visit the rooms, where German generals signed unconditional surrender on Mai 9, 1945. The museum documents the German war against the Soviet Union (Zwieseler Strasse 4, S-train station Karlshorst, S3 or U-train station Tierpark, U5, then bus 396).
The division of Berlin after World War II
In 1945, Stalin, Truman, and Churchill, who is later replaced by Attlee, meet in Schloss Cecilienhof to negotiate European postwar frontiers. They sign the Potsdam Agreement.
You can visit the conference rooms in Schloss Cecilienhof. 1945's interior has been preserved (Potsdam station, S1, or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten, Neuer Garten, bus 692).
Germany and Berlin are divided into four parts: There is a Soviet, an American, a French and a British zone. Berlin's surroundings are part of the Soviet zone.
Politically the division line runs between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies. In Berlin the East-West frontier cuts through the government district, along Brandenburg Gate and across Friedrichstrasse. When the D-Mark is introduced in the West sector, the Soviet Union blocks all transport links. The Western Allies have to fly food to West-Berlin.
In 1949 the Federal Republic is founded with Bonn as capital and the GDR with East Berlin as capital. West Berlin is an island sourrounded by the GDR. In 1953 demonstrations of building site workers against increased work quotas lead to the uprising of June 17th. Soviet tanks silence the protest.
The Federal Republic's booming economy encourages growing numbers of GDR citizens to cross the border - for political, personal and economic reasons. They are so many, that in 1961, the GDR locks itself into a wall. Flight attempts become dangerous: GDR soldiers along the border are ordered to shoot.
At the former transit point C - "Checkpoint Charlie" - you see remains of the Berlin Wall. The Haus am Checkpoint Charlie museum documents the more or less successful escape attemps across the wall (Friedrichstrasse 43-45, U-train station Kochstrasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2). Checkpoint Charlie was the transit point for foreigners, diplomats, GDR citizens on special missions, exchanged spies and army personnel in the center of Berlin.
A section of the Berlin Wall has been preserved at the Gedenkstaette Berliner Mauer memorial in Bernauer Strasse (S-train station Nordbahnhof, S1, S2, U-train station Bernauer Strasse, U8). There is a documentation center across the road.
A section of the wall painted by artists - the East Side Gallery - can be visited at Muehlenstrasse leading to Oberbaumbruecke bridge (S-train station Warschauer Strasse, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9).
At Niederkirchnerstrasse 8-10 you find remains of the wall - eroded by souvenir hunters (S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200)
In the Tempelhof district, the Notaufnahmelager Marienfelde memorial shows a documentation on the reception of GDR refugees (Marienfelder Allee 666-680, S-train station Marienfelde, S2).
The new East and West Berlin myth is made up of espionage, of spys, of dangerous escapes across the wall. The Cold War in Berlin is the subject of the Aliied Museum in the former US-Army cinema "Outpost" in Clay-Allee 125 (U-train station Oskar-Helene-Heim, U1).
In the Lichtenberg district, the Forschungs- und Gedenkstaette Normannenstrasse shows the rooms of the GDR Ministery for State Security, e.g. Minister Erich Mielke's office (U-train station Magdalenenstrasse, U5).
You visit a GDR state security prison in the Gedenkstaette Berlin-Hohenschoenhausen (Genslerstrasse 66, S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200, then tram 6, 7, 17).
In Potsdam's center the Lindenstrasse Memorial exhibits a former GDR state security prison (Lindenstrasse 24, Potsdam station, S1 or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten).
Architects continue where they were forced to leave in 1933: In West-Berlin in Kulturforum Mies van der Rohe designs the Neue Nationalgalerie built in 1968, Hans Scharoun is the architect of 1963's Philharmonie and of 1979's Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Kulturforum, Tiergarten, S- and U-train station Potsdamer Platz, S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200), the Bauhaus Archive designed by Walter Gropius is built in 1979 (Klingelhoeferstrasse 14,U-train station Nollendorfplatz, U1, U2, U3, U4).
For the exhibition INTERBAU 1957 Le Corbusier designs the Unite d'Habitation at the Olympic Stadion (Flatowallee 16, S- and U-train station Olympiastadion, S5, S75, U2,) and Hugh Stebbins the Kongresshalle - Haus der Kulturen der Welt (Lehrter Bahnhof station, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9), Completely destroyed in the Second World War, the Hansa district is an ideal exhibition ground for the INTERBAU in 1957 (S-train station Tiergarten, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U-train station Hansaplatz, U9): Among many other buildings designed by famous architects you find a tenement block by Alvar Aalto next to U-train station Hansaplatz (Klopstockstrasse 30-32, U9), an apartment building by Walter Gropius in Haendelallee 3-9, a building by Oscar Niemeyer at Altonaer Strasse 4-14 and a house by Max Taut at Hanseatenweg 1-3.
The Deutsche Oper by Fritz Bornemann opens in 1961 (U-train station Deutsche Oper, U2, U-train station Bismarckstrasse, U7), from 1959 to 1963, Egon Eiermann's new Kaiser Wilhelm Gedaechtniskirche is built, integrating the remains of the original church destroyed by the war (Breitscheidplatz, S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U9, bus 100, 200).
In East Berlin Erwin Henselmann, Richard Paulick, Egon Hartmann, Hans Hopp and Kurt Leucht design the Stalinallee, today Karl-Marx-Allee. At Alexanderplatz square Dieter and Franke are the architects of the television tower opened in 1969, Erwin Henselmann is the architect of the Haus des Lehrers (S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200). Designed by Heinz Graffunder, the Palast der Republik is built from 1973 to 1976 (S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200, demolished in 2006 for the reconstruction of the town-palace). The swinging concrete shells by Ulrich Muether are internationally successful. He builds the - demolished - Restaurant Ahornblatt in Berlin Mitte, the Restaurant Seerose at the Havel bank in Potsdam (Breite Strasse, Potsdam station, S1 or regional train RE1 from Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstrasse, Zoologischer Garten), the Observatory in Prenzlauer Berg (S-train station Prenzlauer Allee, Tram 1, S41, S42, S8) and observatories in Wolfsburg, Helsinki, Kuwait and Tripolis.
In 1958 the GDR reconstructs the goddess, the coach and the four hourses of the Brandenburg Gate from moulds stored in West Berlin - without the Prussian Eagle and the Iron Cross.
In the 1960's and 1970's the architects of mass produced apartment blocks forget about the quality of life: In West Berlin the high rise apartments of Gropiusstadt and the Maerkische Viertel, in East Berlin the concrete prefabricated tower blocks of Marzahn, Hellersdorf and Hohenschoenhausen provide much needed living space.
Today Berlin's housing associations attempt to beautify prefabricated concrete tower blocks, some houses are demolished.
West Berlin's economic, cultural and political life is carefully subsidised and assisted. In the 1960's many writers and artists spend time in Berlin, the university attracts students from all over the Federal Republic, draft resisters move to Berlin - because of the city's special political status, West Berlin citizens are exempt from military service .
Workers from Italy, from Greece, from Yugoslavia, from Turkey, from Marocco, are recruited into the Federal Republic and Berlin. Especially in Kreuzberg there is an increasing number of Turkish shops, cultural and religious institutions.
In 1967 the student Benno Ohnesorg gets shot during a demonstration in West-Berlin protesting against the visit of the Schah of Persia. This event marks the beginning of the demonstrations by the West German 'extraparliamentarian opposition'. In the course of events, student leader Rudi Dutschke is shot down at Kurfuerstendamm avenue and badly injured, youths and students occupy empty houses, a cultural alternative scene supports the political mouvement.
A few projects from this time survived: In Kreuzberg, the Mehringhof (U-train station Gneisenaustrasse, U7) and in Tempelhof the UFA Fabrik (U-train station Ullsteinstrasse, U6). The Tempodrom in Kreuzberg dates back to a circus tent at Potsdamer Platz square (U-train station Moeckernbruecke, U7, U-train station Hallesches Tor, U1, U6, S-train station Anhalter Bahnhof, S1, S2).
In East Berlin a parallel scene lives in the Prenzlauer Berg district - closely kept under surveillance by the GDR's secret service. The Hirschhof courtyard dates back to this era, unique for East Berlin in the redesign by an initiative of people living in the apartments close by (Kastanienallee 12, U-train station Eberswalder Strasse, U2) and the Kulturbrauerei in the building of the former Schultheiss brewery (Schoenhauser Allee 36, U-train station Eberswalder Strasse, U2), dating back to the GDR's Franzclub.
The Schauspielhaus by Hans Poelzig is finally demolished in 1986 by the GDR, from 1983 onwards across the road the "Neue Friedrichstadtpalast" shows chorus line shows (Friedrichstrasse 107, U-train station Oranienburger Tor, U6, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse, S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U6).
West and East Berlin celebrate the city's 750th anniversary in 1987, the GDR reconstructs the medieval Nikolai church and the Nikolai quarter for the occasion - trying to give an idea of the historic town center (S- and U-train station Alexanderplatz, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U5, U8, bus 100, bus 200).
In the reconstructed Nikolai quarter you find the house, where Gotthold Ephraim Lessing wrote "Minna von Barnhelm" and the historic "Gasthaus Zum Nussbaum" transferred from the Fischerinsel island. In the reconstructed house of the Knoblauch family at the corner of Nikolaikirchplatz square and Poststrasse Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Moses Mendelssohn, Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt were guests, the General Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst and Freiherr von Stein.
Reunion, Representative Government and Company Buildings
In 1989 the Soviet President Michail Gorbatschow proclaims the change of time. His dictum "He who comes too late will be punished by life" ends the power of the GDR government. Erich Honecker steps down, GDR civil rights activists demonstrate on the streets. On November 9, 1989, the member of the politbureau Guenther Schabowski announces the opening of the borders. In Berlin, over a million people celebrate the beginning of the end of Germany's division.
In 1991 the newly elected united German Federal Parliament decides to take seat in Berlin's Reichstag building. Architect Sir Norman Foster is commissioned for the necessary alterations and for the new Reichstag glass dome (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200). Before construction works begin Christo and Jeanne-Claude pack the Reichstag adding a touch of playfulness to the historic hour.
You can climb Sir Norman Foster's Reichstag glass dome. From the viewing platform you get a good view of Berlin.
The Brandenburg Gate gets a face lift: once again, from 1991 onwards, the goddess carries the wand with the Prussian eagle and the iron cross.
The transfer from Bonn to Berlin begins. Members of Parlamiament, ministries, government bodies, company headquarters, embassies, associations ... Berlin fills with spectacular new buildings: the company headquarters at Potsdamer Platz square (S1, S2, S25, S26, U2, bus 200), the DG Bank by Frank Gehry at Pariser Platz square (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, 200), the Jewish Museum by Daniel Libeskind (Lindenstrasse 9-14, Kreuzberg, U-train station Hallesches Tor, U1, U6), the Friedrichstadt-Passagen with the Quartier 206 by I.M.Pei, Cobb and Freed and the Quartier 207 by Jean Nouvel (S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, bus 100, 200), the Neue Kranzlereck by Helmut Jahn (Kurfuerstendamm 16-24, S- and U-train station Zoologischer Garten, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9, U2, U9, Uhlandstrasse, U1, Kurfuerstendamm, U9), the government buildings on the river Spree (S-train station Unter den Linden, S1, S2, S25, S26, bus 100, bus 200), the embassies in the Tiergarten district,the Swiss architect Max Dudler constructs minimalist buildings at Gendarmenmarkt (BEWAG, Markgrafenstrasse 35, U-train station Franzoesische Strasse, U6, U-train station Stadtmitte, U2, U6) and Friedrichstrasse (29-31, Bus 100, 200, S- and U-train station Friedrichstrasse S1, S2, S25, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9) and the construction goes on. In 2004 the Olympia stadion gets a new roof, the Dutch embassy opens, designed by Rem Kohlhaas (U-train station Klosterstrasse, U2), in 2006 trains stop at the new Lehrter Bahnhof central station (Lehrter Bahnhof station, S3, S5, S7, S75, S9), at Brandenburg gate Peter Eisenman's field of stelae is complete - the 'Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe' ...
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